As punishment for the assassination of the Nazi deputy administrator of Bohemia and Moravia, Reinhard Heydrich, on 10 June 1942, the village was razed, with all of Lidice's 192 men shot and 196 women and most of the 105 children sent to concentration camps.
The ethnic composition is 94 percent Czech (Moravians and Bohemian Czechs), 3 percent Slovak, 0.6 percent Polish, 0.5 percent German, 0.3 percent Romany (Gypsy) officially but perhaps as much as 2.5 percent, and about 0.4 percent Ukrainian.
Other ethnic minorities are numerically insignificant. For example, the Jewish population is probably no more than 12,000 because over 80,000 Jews died in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. The differences among those dialects mainly involve the pronunciation of vowels and the names of local or regional dishes, plants, and costumes.
When Comenius went into permanent exile in 1628, a number of European countries invited him for extended visits. During the religious conflicts of the Thirty Years War (1618–1648), Comenius proposed the establishment of an ecumenical council of churches and an international academy of scientists.
Among his writings were a seven-volume manuscript with recommendations for the improvement of human affairs and a textbook with illustrations ( Orbis pictus ) that is said to be the first such textbook.
Restored and reopened in 1883, it continues to be one of Prague's landmarks.