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Evolutionists typically interpret the nested pattern as descent with modification.

Character state changes are seen as phylogenetic changes.

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Cladograms are ubiquitous in the paleontological literature, and are often used as evidence for evolution.

Cladistics is a method that classifies organisms in a nested hierarchy of similarity based on a comparison of individual characteristics.

The Hennigians were clear when they call cladistics ‘phylogenetic systematics’—they worked with the assumption that evolution is the foundation of cladistics.

Therefore, they believed the purpose of cladistics was to elucidate the most probable These so-called ‘transformed’ or ‘pattern’ cladists called this process assumption of Hennigian cladistics into question by saying that the methodology does not require the assumption of evolution to work.

Hennig argued that methods current in his day had two fundamental flaws: they were hopelessly subjective, and they failed to properly identify evolutionary relationships.