Diamond bearing kimberlite pipes are exposed across the north-central part of the Siberian platform.
Three main time intervals are considered to be the age of emplacement: the Devonian–Early Carboniferous, Triassic, and Cretaceous.
With the decipherment of the Egyptian hieroglyphics, Egyptologists had access to such an absolute timescale, and the age, in calender years, of the Egyptian dynasties could be established.
Furthermore, Egyptian trade wares were used as a basis for establishing the age of the relative chronologies developed for adjoining regions, such as Palestine and Greece.
Other techniques are occasionally useful, for example, historical or iconographic references to datable astronomical events such as solar eclipses (archaeoastronomy).